By Mahmoud A. Suleiman
Monday 29 July 2019
A Coup d’état or a Putsch is defined as the one who takes part in a putsch and secretly plot and suddenly execute attempt to overthrow a government. However, when we delve into linguistics and their historic origins that relate to the native Swiss German, putsch originally meant "knock" or "thrust," but these days both German and English speakers use it to refer to the kind of government overthrow also known as a coup d’état. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/putsch
As the delving into linguistics is necessitated by the phenomenon of the no ending series military Coup d’états which plagued the post-independence from the former Anglo-Egyptian Condominium on the dawn of Sunday the First January 1956, I find myself is obliged to be more pedantic into this linguistic digression, pardon me, my dear readers.
As of July 27th 2019, the Sudanese December 19th 2018 Revolution has become as old as 220 Days, 7.233 Months, during which the plethora of neverending negotiations between the Transitional Military Council (TMC) and the Forces of Declaration of Freedom and Change (FDFC) continued unabated due to and as a result of evasion and intransigence by the military junta, which is inseparable part of the ruling regime of the repugnant National Congress Party (NCP) led by deposed dictator Omer Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir and his entourage in the International Muslim Brotherhood Movement (MBM) Khartoum branch ! During the period of seven and a half months since the outbreak of the December Revolution, there have been a series of attempts at military coups, allegedly Seven, to bring back the arbitrary regime of the ousted former (NCP) and its deposed ruler to life for the vicious circle of empowerment and crimes to continue at the expense of the disenfranchised Sudanese citizens. That ongoing plot can be easily understood if one knew firsthand that all the Military Junta in the Transitional Military Council (TMC) with the exception of General Mohammed Hamdan Dogolo – aka Hamedti- are members of the former National Congress Party (NCP).
According to news media reports, especially the authentic Sudan tribune cyber journal, the issue of July 25, 2019, indicated that Sudan continues to arrest military officers and former officials after the failed coup.
Historically, Sudan witnessed a plethora of military coups and coup attempts amounted since the dawn of Sunday the First of January 1956. The Sudanese army has not fought any war to protect the borders of the land of Sudan from the incursion of foreign armies and evidence that the State of Egypt has occupied the two regions of Sudan which are Halayeb and Shalatin, while Ethiopia occupies the area of Fashaga. Thus, the biggest evidence is that SAF forces have become domesticated and castrated; pardon me for the use of those two words. It is evident that the duty to defend the rights of the homeland by the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) has gone with the Dictatorship priorities.
History of Military coups in Sudan indicates that the east African country, unfortunately, witnessed and suffered not less than, to exaggerate, fifteen between a successful military coup and a failed attempt. As of 8 June 2019, the Transitional Military Council (TMC) is the current military junta governing Sudan. It was established on 11 April 2019 after the 2019 Sudanese coup d’état and is formally headed by Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, Inspector of the Armed Forces, after Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf resigned as leader one day following the coup. Lieutenant General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo ("Hemeti") is formally the deputy leader but seen as the de facto real leader. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transitional_Military_Council_(2019).
Dagalo, formally the deputy leader of the Council, is the commander of the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) as holding more real power in the Council than al-Burhan. The (RSF) is the immediate successor organisation to the former Janjaweed militia, after being cloned. According to news media outlets Some of the Council’s other known members include were General Jalaladdin AL sheikh, a former deputy director of security, Lieutenant-General Al-Tayeb Babikir Ali Fidail, who led the public order police (POP/PDF), and Lieutenant General Omer Zain al-Abidin served as the leader of the junta’s political committee. All three tendered their resignations on 24 April 2019. General Gamal Omer of the TMC commented publicly on the 30 June 2019 mass de ministrations, attributing the responsibility for ten deaths to the protest organisers.
It is noteworthy that the Transitional Military Council (TMC) claimed several times during 2019 that a coup d’état attempt had been foiled and that those responsible had been arrested. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transitional_Military_Council_(2019)
As of Thursday 25 July 2019, the TMC had not named the alleged coup plotters of the first four coup attempts. As of 25 July 2019, the TMC had not named the alleged coup plotters of the first four coup attempts. On 12 July 2019, Gamal Omer Ibrahim of the TMC reported the fourth coup attempt, stating that twelve army and National Intelligence and Security Service (NISS) officers had attempted a coup d’état against the TMC without naming the alleged conspirators. Furthermore, on 25 July, the TMC stated that a combined military-Islamist coup attempt had occurred. The TMC stated that it had arrested the head of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Lieutenant-General Hashim Abdel Muttalab Ahmed; Major-General Nasr al-Din Abdel Fattah; former Foreign Minister, Ali Ahmed Karti; the commander of the Central District, Major-General Bahar Ahmed; former Minister of Minerals, Kamal Abdel Latif; and Secretary-General of the Islamic Movement, Zubair Ahmed al-Hassan. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transitional_Military_Council_(2019)
According to the BBC News that a spokesman insisted the army did not seek power and Sudan’s future would be decided by the protesters - but said the army would maintain public order. Nevertheless, Protesters are still out in Khartoum, fearing the coup leaders are too close to ousted ruler Omer Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-47908785
The rhetoric of the military junta (TMC) goes on when Lt-Gen Omar Zain al-Abidin, who heads the military council’s political committee, said on Friday "The solutions will be devised by those in protest; “you, the people, will provide the solutions for all economic and political issues. We have come with no ideology; we have come here to maintain order and security to provide the opportunity for the people of Sudan to achieve the change they aspire to. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-47908785
History of military coups in Sudan begins from Abboud’s coup of November 17th 1958 to Nimeiri’s 25th May 1969, Al-Bashir’s 30 June 1989, the series that does not break and two popular revolutions in 21st October 1964 and in April 1985 and Followed by a third revolution on December 19, 2018.
Ghassan Charbel, Editor in Chief of Asharq Al-Awsat newspaper says: if Libya lost four decades under Colonel Moammar Kaddafi, Sudan lost three decades under Omer Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir. It is no exaggeration to say that Sudan, since its independence in 1956, spent a lost age among the generals and uprisings until it became exhausted by the current change. The succession of revolutions and coups drained the resources and stability of the country, rupturing its unity and dwarfing its map. The prowess of the Sudanese parties to dispel the democratic sweeps is not matched by the military’s ability to seize any chance of regaining control and seals.
The youth of Sudan after independence has been lost between the hammer of blatant foreign intervention and the ensuing episodes of military Coup d’états.
In the wake of the observation and follow-up of the origins of the successful military coups and failed coup attempts one discovers that the origin of most of the military coups that succeeded and ruled were supported by political elements with ideologies from the far right in the case of the coup of General Ibrahim Abboud, who was supported by Mr Abdullah Khalil who was belonging to the Umma Party and the religious Ansar sect. Whereas Jaafer al-Nimeri was supported by the leftmost components formed of the Sudanese Communist Party (SCP), in addition to the Arab nationalists and the Nasserites. The coup led by Omer Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir was supported and planned by the National Islamic Front (NIF), which is a branch of the International Muslim Brotherhood Movement (MBM) the Khartoum branch. On the other hand, one finds that other attempted military coups rarely had prominent ideological support.
Now let us review the History of Military Coups in Sudan Source of which being the Middle East Newspaper is as follows: https://aawsat.com/home/article/1679011/%D8%BA%D8%B3%D8%A7%D9%86-%D8%B4%D8%B1%D8%A8%D9%84/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%88%D8%AF%D8%A7%D9%86-%D9%88%D8%AF%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%B3-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%82%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AA%D9%81%D8%A7%D8%B6%D8%A7%D8%AA
>From Abboud 1958 to Nimeiri, Al-Bashir A series that does not break and two popular revolutions Followed by a third revolution on December 19, 2018.
Sudan’s modern history has been plagued with military coups. Since the independence of Sudan in 1956 and today, 63 years later, there have been more than 11 coups along with an unlimited number of coup attempts, and two popular revolutions have overthrown two powerful military regimes. Since independence, the military has ruled for 45 years, extending over three convulsions, as opposed to 11 years for democratic civilian governments for three periods as well. Other coups occurred during periods of military rule and civilians. The coup d’états of Ibrahim Aboud in 1958 (6 years), Jaafar Nimeiri 1969 (16 years), and Omar al-Bashir in 1989 (continuing for 30 years) are the most prominent in Sudan.
* The coup of Ibrahim Abboud 1958 - 1964:
It was the first coup d’état in Sudan against the civil government headed by Abdullah Khalil (from the Umma Party), which took power from the British colonizer. It was led by General Ibrahim Abboud on 17 February 1958 and was known for the coup of General Aboud.
* The coup of Major General Abdel Wahab 1960 (not successful):
During the reign of General Abboud, there were several coups, most notably the coup of Major General Ahmed Abdel Wahab, Mohieddin Ahmed Abdallah and Abdel Rahim Shannan. It was in 1960, two years after Abboud’s coup. Instead of imprisoning or executing them, as usual in military governments, the coupists were absorbed into the government.
* Al-Rashid Al-Taher coup:
In 1963, al-Rashid al-Tahir Bakr, the first secretary-general of the Muslim Brotherhood, Ali Hamid and Kubaida, was assassinated. Five officers were executed and others were imprisoned, including the mastermind of the coup d’état al-Rashid al-Tahir, the former justice minister.
The coup of the junior officers, the group of free officers, including Lt. Col. Jaafar Nimeiri (who later succeeded in the success of his coup in 1969) and a number of students of the military college and the failure of the coup and the officers were removed to locations far from Khartoum, where the coups are carried out.
*October 21, 1964:
The first popular revolution took place in the Arab and African world, where it was launched from the University of Khartoum, and the streets of the capital were subdued against Abboud’s regime, forcing the leaders of the Sudanese Armed Forces to take the lead in the popular uprising that overthrew Sudan’s first military coup and ruled the country for six years. The second civil government began to rule the country until May 1969.
* Nimeiri coup May 1969:
On May 25, 1969, Colonel Jaafar Mohammed Nimeiri led a coup with the participation of the Sudanese Communist Party and the Arab nationalists. Al Nimeiri continued to rule for 16 years and his rule was changed by a coup d’état.
* Hashim al-Atta coup 1971:
He was led by Major Hashem al-Atta on 19 July 1971 with a group of officers belonging to the Sudanese Communist Party. He seized power for three days but Nimeiri regained power with Libyan support from Muammar Gaddafi and a popular movement at home. The officers who participated in the coup were executed by Hashim al-Atta, Babiker al-Nur, Sawar al-Zahab, Farouk Othman Hamdallah and others, and a number of the leadership of the Sudanese Communist Party, most notably his secretary-general Abdul Khaliq Mahjoub, the union leader Ahmed al-Sheikh and southern leader Joseph Garang, and hundreds of communist cadres.
* Hassan Hussein’s coup (not successful):
Signed on 5 August 1975 and led by Lieutenant Hassan Hussein and his group, belonging to the Islamic trend. He was sentenced to death by firing squad after being arrested during shooting and was injured by his wounds during his arrest.
* Coup Mohamed Nour Saad (did not work):
Signed on July 2, 1977 under the leadership of Brigadier General Mohamed Nour Saad, known in Sudan as "the invasion of mercenaries" where the National Front for the Opposition abroad tried to unite the Umma Party led by Sadiq al-Mahdi, the Democratic Union led by the late Sharif Hussein Hindi, And with the help of late Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. The coup was carried out by moving from the Libyan border along with the movement of their internal groups of students and soldiers in the army. The coup failed, coup leaders were executed by firing squad and the streets of Khartoum saw battles in which hundreds, mostly Darfuris, were killed.
* The April uprising and the rule of Marshall Suwar Al-Dahab 1985:
Is the second popular revolution taking place in Sudan, the Arab world and Africa after the revolution of October 1964, overthrew military rule. The people went out in all corners of the capital and the region, demanding the end of the rule of Nimeiri, on 27 March until 6 April 1985. Nimeiri had left for the United States for treatment. The army was led by the Chief of Staff at the time, Marshal Hassan Abdul Rahman, From April 1985, then minister of defense Nimeiri, and sentenced for a year in the transitional period and handed over power voluntarily after free elections came to the government of Sadiq al-Mahdi elected in 1986.
* The coup d’état of President Omar al-Bashir took place on 30 June 1989 under the leadership of Brigadier General Omar Hassan al-Bashir and with the participation of the National Islamic Front led by Hassan al-Turabi, and there were several coup attempts during which the most famous:
The coup d’état of Ramadan 1990 was (not successful) took place in April 1990, one year after the coup d’état of Bashir and his Islamic group. This attempt was known as the coup d’état of Ramadan. The attempt was carried out during that holy month. The coup was led by Abdelgader Al-Kadarow and Khalid Al-Zain and others. All 28 officers were from brigade to lieutenant and others.
March 2004 coup (not successful) is an attempted coup in March 2004 accused of the Popular Congress Party (PCP) led by Hassan al-Turabi, and arrested a number of party leaders and some officers, and accused Dr. Hajj Adam Yusuf, the current Sudanese vice president, Fled to the Eritrean capital Asmara and returned after two years reconciled with the regime and appointed a deputy to Bashir.
May 2008 under the leadership of its late leader Dr. Khalil Ibrahim - was a bold attempt, as these forces entered from the borders of Darfur to the Sudanese capital to overthrow the regime. The two countries, Chad and Libya, have been accused of being behind the attempt. A number of participants have been arrested and sentenced to death but have not yet been executed. They are in the famous Kobar Prison, including Abdel Aziz Nour-Usher, half-brother of Dr. Khalil Ibrahim.
Stewart Stafford who was born in New York City to Irish parents and whose family moved back to Ireland when he was three years old and has lived there ever since has been quoted as saying: “A traitor only becomes one if their plot is discovered. The imposition of guilt means nothing to those who feign loyalty. More skilled conspirators wield treason as a clinical tool of regime change and political expediency. They then, with their own hand writing history, such traitors may wear the clothes of patriots.”
Eduardo Hughes Galeano the Uruguayan journalist, writer and novelist considered, among other things, "global soccer’s pre-eminent man of letters" and "a literary giant of the Latin American left", has been quoted as said: “Most of wars or military coups or invasions are done in the name of democracy against democracy”. https://www.google.com/search?q=Eduardo+Galeano&oq=Eduardo+Galeano&aqs=chrome..69i57j0l5.4995j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
*Dr Mahmoud A. Suleiman is an author, columnist and a blogger. His blog is http://thussudan.wordpress.com/